Quick Exit

Multi-agency public protection arrangements (MAPPA)

Multi-Agency Public Protection Arrangements (MAPPA) is a process through which the Police, Probation and Prison Service work together with other agencies to manage the risks posed by violent and sexual offenders living in the community. 

The purpose of MAPPA is to help to reduce the risk of harm and re-offending behaviours of sexual and violent offenders. This is in order to protect the public including previous victims from serious harm.

How does MAPPA work? +

Offenders eligible for MAPPA are identified and information is gathered and shared about them across relevant agencies. The nature and level of the risk of harm they pose is assessed and a risk management plan is implemented to protect the public. 

A risk management plan sets out the action that needs to be taken to minimise the risk. Some measures that can be considered are: 

  • Ensuring offenders have suitable accommodation, which can include requiring the offender to reside at a probation run hostel;
  • Placing controls on the offenders behaviour through strict release licence conditions which can include not to have contact with a named individual and not to enter a defined exclusion zone;
  • Intensive supervision by a probation officer offender manager and/or community public protection police:
  • Curfew restrictions and/or electronic tagging;
  • Ensure that if appropriate the offender receives appropriate health care; and
  • Ensure the offender attends identified accredited programmes and other interventions (such as drug and alcohol programmes) aimed at reducing further offending. 

Not all MAPPA offenders present an immediate risk of harm to others and in most cases; the offender will be managed under the ordinary arrangements applied by the agency or agencies with supervisory responsibility.

Responsible Authorities +

There are three Responsible Authorities 

  • Probation
  • Police
  • Prison 

Duty to cooperate Agencies +

  • Section 325(3 & 6) of the Criminal Justice Act 2003 ("CJA 2003") requires the Responsible Authorities to co-operate with DTC agencies which are;
  • Youth offending teams ("YOTs").
  • Ministers of the Crown exercising functions in relation to social security (in practice, DWP, Jobcentre Plus).
  • The local education authority.
  • The local housing authority.
  • Registered social landlords providing or managing residential accommodation in which MAPPA offenders may reside.
  • The local social services authority.
  • The Health Authority or Strategic Health Authority.
  • The Primary Care Trust or Local Health Board.
  • The NHS Trust.
  • Providers of electronic monitoring services.
  • The UK Border Agency. 

Who attends MAPPA Meetings? +

The representatives must have the authority to make decisions committing their agency’s involvement, including committing resources. Otherwise the effectiveness of the multi-agency may compromise the risk management plan.  

The representative must have relevant experience of risk/needs assessment and management and analytical and team-working skills to inform discussions. Such experience and skills can usefully contribute both to the management of specific cases and on case management generally. 

The effectiveness of level 2 and level 3 MAPPA meetings is dependent upon establishing good working relationships across agencies. Multi-agency work is often complex and benefits greatly from the continuity of personnel and their professional engagement. 

MAPPA Categories of offenders +

There are three categories of violent and sexual offenders who are managed through MAPPA. 

Category 1: Certain Sex Offenders are required to register with the Police their name, address and other personal details. The length of time an offender is required to register with Police can vary between 12 months and life* depending on the age of the offender, the age of the victim and the nature of the offence and sentence they received.

* Offenders placed on the sex offenders register for life have a right of appeal.

Category 2: Certain Violent Offenders who have been sentenced to 12 months or more in custody or to detention in hospital and who are now living in the community subject to Probation supervision. 

Category 3: Other Dangerous Offenders who have committed an offence in the past and who are considered to pose a risk of serious harm to the public. 

MAPPA Levels of Management +

Level One – Ordinary Agency

Lead agency has a robust Risk Management plan in place with information exchange between Multi-Agencies.

Level Two – Multi Agency

Several agencies required to manage the offender – regular review meetings

Level Three – Multi Agency

Highest risk offenders – imminent risk of harm, decisions by senior managers  

Level 1: Ordinary Agency Management

Used in cases in which the risks posed by the offender can be managed by the agency responsible for supervision/case management of the offender. 

This does not mean that other agencies will not be involved, only that it is not necessary to actively manage through multi-agency meetings.

Reviewed & Recorded regularly by the lead agency 

Level 2: Multi-Agency Public Protection Meeting 

Cases where offender is assessed as posing a significant risk of harm.


Where it is determined that the management issues require active conferencing 

Multi-agency management adds value to the lead agency’s management of the Risk of Serious Harm (ROSH) posed and are chaired / co-chaired by a Police Detective Inspector and Senior Probation Officer. 

In certain circumstances, cases may also be managed at Level 2 after having been managed at Level 3 or escalated to level 3.

Level 2 meetings are reviewed at least every 16 weeks 

Level 3: Multi-Agency Public Protection Meeting 

Used where it is determined that the management issues require:

 Active conferencing


Senior Representation in order to be able to commit significant resources at short notice


Where there are significant media issues and/or public interest in the case. 

Meetings are chaired or co-chaired by a Police - Detective Chief Inspector / National Probation Service - Head of Cluster

Level 2 meetings are reviewed at least every 16 weeks 

MAPPA Management +

Levels of risk do not equate directly to levels of MAPPA management. 

The central question in determining the correct MAPPA level is: 

 “What is the lowest level of case management that provides a defensible Risk Management Plan?” 

How do I fit into this? 

Your agency will contribute to MAPPA in a range of ways: 

  1. Your agency will be a Duty to Cooperate agency by virtue of your involvement with the case or their family and will be invited to contribute to a meeting. This may involve information sharing, allocation of resources etc and will primarily be done through engagement with MAPPA meeting process.
  2. Your agency will have concerns about a case you are working with and want to refer to your local MAPPA coordinator for an assessment as to whether the case is suitable for MAPPA level 2 or 3 Management.
  3. Vulnerable adults may be involved in the MAPPA process either as victims with specific vulnerabilities (or their close family) or MAPPA nominals (i.e. offenders) may themselves be classed as vulnerable adults (eg. Elderly offenders). 

Safeguarding Link between WSAB/WSP and MAPPA Strategic Management \Board SMB 

Information should be shared between MAPPA, Children’s Safeguarding Partnerships (Previously LSCB) and Local Safeguarding Adult Boards (LSAB) in a necessary and proportionate manner with lawful authority to protect the public. 

Representatives should ensure that the timely and confident information sharing is critical to both public protection and children’s safeguarding. 

All boards should ensure:- 

Relevant information is shared within the above context in the interests of public protection and the safeguarding of children and Adults the statutory responsibility of both boards. 

Information will be marked and securely stored in line with Government Protected Marking Scheme (GPMS). 

The LSCB Business Managers will ensure that relevant strategic information from the SMB is presented to the Children and Adult services boards and ensure that any relevant information from the Child and Adult boards is taken to the MAPPA Strategic Management Board via the safeguarding representative. 

Strategic information can be shared with MAPPA via the SMB secretariat or the central MAPPA Co-ordination unit or local Chairs. 

MAPPA has a responsibility for disclosure and both boards will be aware of responsibilities under the Child Sex Offender Disclosure Scheme. There will be a clear audit trail where disclosure has been agreed as necessary. 

Each board should consider the role of the other when reviewing individual cases. 

Safeguarding Adults and MAPPA 

  • Adult Social Care Departments have Safeguarding Adults Boards, established under the Care Act. This requires local agencies to collaborate and work together, and for all agencies to designate a lead officer and form the adult safeguarding boards.
  • The Care Act requires local arrangements to be in place to prevent abuse, and to investigate and to take action where a vulnerable adult is being abused. Local safeguarding adult partnerships have systems for calling safeguarding meetings and developing safeguarding plans.
  • The local Safeguarding Adults Boards have a range of duties including commissioning, providing safe services and protecting individuals.
  • Adult Services representative should have read relevant records prior to attending a MAPPA Meeting
  • Provide information, where relevant, on an offender’s care and support needs and the action being taken to promote their well-being.
  • They will also be able to provide information on the nature and level of risk an adult at risk (offender as victim or perpetrator, or victim or other identified adults at risk) may be facing,
  • Their vulnerability and resilience, their risk to self, and risk of self-harm or commit suicide, and the action being taken by adult services or others to safeguard the adult.
  • It is good practice for each borough or MAPPA area to have a core adult social care representative with the relevant experience and authority to commit resources.
  • The lead social worker for the adult (or family) at risk should attend, both where the offender poses a risk to a vulnerable adult and where the offender has been identified as an adult at risk.
  • Where the lead social worker does not have the authority to make decisions and commitments on behalf of the local authority and in the absence of a core representative able to do so,
  • The lead social worker's manager should attend as well or instead. 

Additional information / Statutory Guidance can be found at